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2019年8月10日托福寫作考題解析 - 霍小玲

作者:霍小玲 2019-09-05 18:24 來源:武漢編輯
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北美考試院 托福寫作組 霍小玲

 

2019.08.10 托福綜合寫作真題

Integrated Writing Task

閱讀部分:提出生態系統Everglades面臨著三個嚴重的環境威脅。


1、入侵植物。Cattail這種植物入侵了這片區域, 搶奪營養, 破壞了環境;


2、干燥化。水位的下降導致了植物的死亡, 有些地方直接變成了灰塵;


3、汞過量。不但毒害了植物也毒害了人。


聽力反駁:給出相應的三個解決方案


1、入侵植物大規模生長的起因是化肥的大量使用,最近的很多 farmer都換成了低鹽的化肥,以后這個問題就解決;


2、這主要是因為排水系統在雨季把洪水導離人口密集的城市, 但這套系統也把濕地的 水抽走了,只要撤掉一些管道就行;


3、汞主要是因為燃煤,一些煤里面含有過量的汞, 很多工廠現在已經采用了低汞的煤, 這個問題也解決。

 


本期考題考察的話題屬于托福綜合寫作考試中考察較多的生態類話題,主要考察的是環境受到威脅的話題,并給出相應的解決方案。


在TPO中有大量材料也涉及到了相關話題,在TPO 的題目中,有生態類話題TPO 10(海獺數量下降); TPO 18(佛羅里達榧樹減少的解決方案);TPO 23(雪松數量減少)和TPO 26(斑馬貝的入侵)。考生可適度選擇上述提到的TPO材料,熟悉相關話題,分析材料結構和寫作結構。


Keywords: plant; pollution; disease; environment; predator; technology; human activities; resources; strategy


可以類比如下綜合寫作。


TPO10 The sea otter is a small mammal


閱讀部分:


總觀點:海獺數量下降的原因是環境污染。


l 阿拉斯加海域確有污染源;


l 除海獺外,還有其他哺乳動物的數量下降;


l 不同區域海獺數量下降情況不同,可以解釋為污染物聚集情況不同導致。


聽力反駁:


總觀點:目前的研究表明天敵捕食是最可能導致海獺數量減少的原因。


l 首先,由于沒有人發現有海獺尸體被沖上阿拉斯加海灘,所以污染理論不是那么站得住腳。如果污染造成的疾病導致了海獺數量的劇減,那么情況不該如此。很少發現海獺尸體也說明了天敵捕食假說;


l 盡管逆戟鯨喜歡捕食鯨類,但是由于鯨類數量卻由于人類的捕獵活動而劇烈減少。也就是逆戟鯨不得不為了生存而更改捕食習慣。目前來看逆戟鯨很有可能將唯一可以捕捉的小型海洋哺乳動物作為食物,就很可能導致文中提到的海豹、海獅和海獺等小型哺乳動物的減少;


l 海獺數量變化的不均衡恰好表明了逆戟鯨捕食理論比污染理論更合理。海獺數量的增減取決于它們生存的地方逆戟鯨是不是可以進入。在那些逆戟鯨容易進入的海域,海獺的數量急劇減少。而由于逆戟鯨體型龐大,對于淺水區域以及石頭較多的水域它們根本無法到達,也正是這些區域的海獺數量沒有減少。


2019.08.10托福獨立寫作真題

Independent Writing Task

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?


A university should offer students a public speaking course and require all students to take this course before they graduate.

 


題目解析:


本題是典型的利弊分析題型,并且是重復2017年10月29日考題,在寫作時任選取一方充分論證即可。


在分析題目時須注意題目的觀點是大學應提供公共演講課程,并要求所有的學生在畢業前都來上這門課。寫作時all 這個單詞是一個很好的出發點,考生可以思考是否有必要要求所有學生來上這門課,進而決定自己的總觀點選擇同意還是不同意。段落結構可以采用一邊倒或者2+1的結構。


請參考如下范文:


University graduates are usually considered as the main contributors to bettering the world. However, more students who graduate from universities are not given a competitive edge to survive smoothly in the intensely competitive job market, as already suggested by a growing body of data. To avoid this phenomenon, a voice is heard regarding the remedy for education: “Universities should offer public speaking courses and all the students should be demanded to take this course before they graduate”. As to this argument, I honestly believe there is no need to impose the requirement on all the students.


First of all, for the college students, it is wiser to focus more on academic study rather than speech ability before they graduate. As we all know, it is the best time for college students to devote themselves to academic study, since they are at the peak of their learning capacity. A student’s ability shall not be only determined by the speaking abilities; apart from that, the comprehensive abilities especially the academic ability counts more in graduates’ final job market competition. Interviewers when choosing a qualified candidate shall not take the speaking ability as the top priority. A report from the Forbes shows that masters tend to favor the candidates who are well developed in academic fields rather than those who just have the abilities to speak in front of people. Besides, the talents or elites in certain territories are usually the ones that are not proficient in public speaking when they are in universities.


Second, not all the college students have the demand for excellent speech ability, in the light of the variation in student pool and major pool. For some students who suffer anxiety and even fear when speaking in front of a large audience should take full advantage of their time to do the things that they favor. If they are forced to take the speaking courses in college years it will damage their ambition towards other subjects and what is worse, the negative psychological experience may drive the students to a deep anxiety for college life. A positive pursuit in the subjects that are within the student’s own inclination is much more significant than a forced course experience in guiding a student’s development. Besides, for certain majors, students need to dedicate themselves to an area with high focus. It may not be scientific for these students to switch themselves to a course that is not necessary for their future academic requirement. If these students are required to spend a large amount of time taking public speaking classes, undoubtedly it may be a waste of time. For personality development of a student or demand of major, not all the students are suitable to have public speaking classes.


Admittedly, public speaking could provide students with improved speaking skills and courage to express themselves. Nevertheless, this capability could also be obtained through some certain more effective methods. For instance, social activities outside the classroom or in the working circumstances are more realistic for students to practice their speaking skills since they can practice their abilities in a more flexible environment with a relatively relaxed way.


Judging from all the evidence offered, we may safely arrive at the conclusion that it is not the best way to help their graduates by requiring all the students to take public speaking classes. For the sake of the students’ career guidance, public speaking classes are not considered as crucial for every student. School authorities should encourage students to do what they need for their development.


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