400-009-9696

事實信息題提分提速小技巧 - 魏楊

作者:魏楊 2019-09-12 14:09 來源:武漢編輯
收藏

事實信息題是托福閱讀中的基礎題型,雖然總體難度比不上推斷題、修辭目的題,但是因為出題占比較高,托福閱讀想拿25分以上的同學在這個題型上要力求“快準穩”,為較難的題目節省一些時間;而托福閱讀不到20分的同學在這個題型上一般還是有一些解題障礙的。


TPO1-54的閱讀部分中,事實信息題的占比在26%,每篇的出題頻率在3~6,托福新政實行后,該題型的比例雖然有所下降,但是依然是所有題型中頻率較高的,所以,只有又快又準的完成事實信息題,才能有更多的時間來思考較難的題型,然后“優雅端莊,不慌不忙”的解決主旨題。


一、 題型要求


事實信息題要求考生能夠理解并找出文中提到的事實。這種問題可能包括文中明確提出的事實或信息。這種題可能考查細節、定義、解釋或其他的數據種類。被考查的事實通常只能在文章的某一處找到,可能是在某一兩個句子里,它并不考查大家對文章的整體把握。


二、 題型特點


(1) 通常有段落范圍: According to paragraph X


(2) 通常為特殊疑問句,一般都會有比較明顯的標示性表述,所選的正確答案在原文中作者是明確描述出來的(explicitly stated),這可以跟推斷題區分開來。


三、 重點技巧及應用


總體來說事實信息題想要又快又準的話,必備技巧就是快速定位和識別同義改寫,但由于在比對選項和原文的過程中有時會有一些拿不準的情況(比如有一兩個關鍵詞不認識或者句式有一些變化),這種時候需要盡量使用排除法。


一般來說不建議大家一開始就試圖去看完整段話再做題,一方面是因為理解能力不足會導致看文段時間較長,另一方面因為題量減少后可能一個長段只出一道題,看整段“性價比”不高。


 1)一次定位解題:題干關鍵詞定位


難度系數:一星


做題時間:50s以內


· 例題:TPO5-1 Minerals and Plants,


Paragraph 1: Research has shown that certain minerals are required by plants for normal growth and development. The soil is the source of these minerals, which are absorbed by the plant with the water from the soil. Even nitrogen, which is a gas in its elemental state, is normally absorbed from the soil as nitrate ions. Some soils are notoriously deficient in micro nutrients and are therefore unable to support most plant life. So-called serpentine soils, for example, are deficient in calcium, and only plants able to tolerate low levels of this mineral can survive. In modern agriculture, mineral depletion of soils is a major concern, since harvesting crops interrupts the recycling of nutrients back to the soil.


According to paragraph 1, what is true of plants that can grow in serpentine soil?


A. They absorb micronutrients unusually well.


B. They require far less calcium than most plants do.


C. They are able to absorb nitrogen in its elemental state.


D. They are typically crops raised for food.


思路導入:plant和soil詞頻過高,但serpentine soil較為特殊,定位到第5句話,即使deficient不熟悉,依然能夠找到這種植物肯定跟calcium有關系,而只有B答案出現了calcium。


· 例題:TPO1-3 Timberline Vegetation on Mountains


Paragraph 2: The upper timberline, like the snow line, is highest in the tropics and lowest in the Polar Regions. It ranges from sea level in the Polar Regions to 4,500 meters in the dry subtropics and 3,500-4,500 meters in the moist tropics. Timberline trees are normally evergreens, suggesting that these have some advantage over deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves) in the extreme environments of the upper timberline. There are some areas, however, where broadleaf deciduous trees form the timberline. Species of birch, for example, may occur at the timberline in parts of the Himalayas.


Paragraph 2 supports which of the following statements about deciduous trees?


A. They cannot grow in cold climates.


B. They do not exist at the upper timberline.


C. They are less likely than evergreens to survive at the upper timberline.


D. They do not require as much moisture as evergreens do.


· 思路導入: deciduous trees 特殊,不認識deciduous沒關系,直接定位到第3句話,evergreen比deciduous有優勢,只有C選項表達了這個意思。


· 小結:對于題干有較明顯關鍵詞的題目一定先從題干入手,有一些不熟悉的詞不要害怕。


2)多次定位解題:題干關鍵詞定位后需再次定位


 難度系數:二星


做題時間:60s以內


· 例題:TPO5-1 Minerals and Plants,


Paragraph 2: Mineral deficiencies can often be detected by specific symptoms such as chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll resulting in yellow or white leaf tissue), necrosis (isolated dead patches), anthocyanin formation (development of deep red pigmentation of leaves or stem), stunted growth, and development of woody tissue in an herbaceous plant. Soils are most commonly deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen-deficient plants exhibit many of the symptoms just described. Leaves develop chlorosis; stems are short and slender, and anthocyanin discoloration occurs on stems, petioles, and lower leaf surfaces. Phosphorus-deficient plants are often stunted, with leaves turning a characteristic dark green, often with the accumulation of anthocyanin. Typically, older leaves are affected first as the phosphorus is mobilized to young growing tissue. Iron deficiency is characterized by chlorosis between veins in young leaves.


According to paragraph 2, a symptom of iron deficiency is the presence in young leaves of


A. deep red discoloration between the veins


B. white or yellow tissue between the veins


C. dead spots between the veins


D. characteristic dark green veins


· 思路導入:iron deficiency特殊且是問題的重點,young leaves只是問的iron deficiency的癥狀的位置,明顯不如iron deficiency合適,定位到最后一句話中,找到chlorosis,但比對選項發現并沒有chlorosis這個詞出現,因此需要再次定位chlorosis這個詞,并找到癥狀,出現在第1句話的括號中,yellow or white只有B選項中有。


According to paragraph 2, which of the following symptoms occurs in phosphorus-deficient plants but not in plants deficient in nitrogen or iron?


A. Chlorosis on leaves


B. Change in leaf pigmentation to a dark shade of green


C. Short, stunted appearance of stems


D. Reddish pigmentation on the leaves or stem


· 思路導入:phosphorus-deficient特殊且是問題的重點,定位發現有stunt,dark green和anthocyanin但還需要不出現在nitrogen deficiency和iron deficiency中,所以需要再次定位這兩個的癥狀,定位發現有chlorosis; stems are short and slender, and anthocyanin,對比后發現只有dark green是phosphorus獨有的,選擇B答案。


· 小結:這類題目關鍵詞依然醒目,做題時需要隨時的比對原文和答案。


3)選項定位+改寫:題干關鍵詞無法直接定位,每個選項依次找關鍵詞回原文定位


難度系數:三星


做題時間:70s~90s


注意:這種方式對詞匯和語法的要求較高,如果沒有一次判斷出正確答案,只能選擇排除法(用時更長)。


· 例題:TPO47-2 Termite Ingenuity


Paragraph 1: Termites, social insects which live in colonies that, in some species, contain 2 million individuals or more, are often incorrectly referred to as white ants. But they are certainly not ants. Termites, unlike ants, have gradual metarnorphosis with only three life stage: egg, nymph, and adult. Ants and the other social members of their order, certain bees and wasps, have complete metarnorphosis in four life stages; egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The worker and soldier castes of social ants, bees, and wasps consist of only females, all daughters of a single queen that mated soon after she matured and thereafter never mated again. The worker and soldier castes of termites consist of both males and females, and the queen lives permanently with a male consort.


According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true about termites?


A. They are a kind of ant, but they are unlike most ants in many ways.


B. They form colonies that grow at first and then gradually decline.


C. Their workers are all males, and their soldiers are all females.


D. They go through a life state called the nymph stage.


· 思路導入:termites是關鍵詞,但全篇文章都是探討termite,所以題干定位失敗,選擇選項定位,A選項通過ant找到定位發現有“But they are certainly not ants”;B選項定位colonies找到第一句,沒有提到decline,排除。C選項定位worker/soldiers或者male/female,最后一句“The worker and soldier castes of termites consist of both males and females”,排除。D答案定位到nymph stage,“only three life stage: egg, nymph, and adult”確認正確。


· 例題:TPO33-1 First Civilization


Paragraph 4: The first clear steps in the rise of the first civilizations took place in the fourth and third millennia B.C. in Mesopotamia, northern Africa, India, and China. How the first governments took shape in these areas is not certain, but anthropologists studying the evolution of human communities in various parts of the world have discovered that one common stage in the process is the emergence of what are called “big men” within a single village or a collection of villages. By means of their military prowess, dominant personalities, or political talents, these people gradually emerge as the leaders of that community. In time, the “big men” become formal symbols of authority and pass on that authority to others within their own family. As the communities continue to grow in size and material wealth, the “big men” assume hereditary status, and their allies and family members are transformed into a hereditary monarchy.


According to paragraph 4, what is not known about the rise of the first civilizations?


A. Where the first steps toward civilization took place


B. Who was allowed to replace “big men” after the “big men” died


C. Why some individuals became recognized as leaders


D. How governments emerged


· 思路導入:first civilization是關鍵詞,但全篇文章都是探討這個話題,所以題干定位失敗,選擇選項定位,A選項通過first step找到第一句話“in Mesopotamia, northern Africa, India, and China”;B選項定位“big men”和replace(注意,此時可能出現沒找到的情況,可以先跳到下一個選項)“pass on that authority to others within their own family”,排除。 C選項定位leaders,找到“By means of their military prowess, dominant personalities, or political talents”,排除。D答案定位到government,“How the first governments took shape in these areas is not certain”確認正確(如果B選項之前無法確認的話,此時也可以確認B選項原文是有出現的)。


· 小結:做這樣的題目一定要目標明確,千萬不能因為題干沒有關鍵詞就去看掃全文,還是從關鍵詞出發。


4)選項定位+排除法:題干無法直接定位,選項定位時發現改寫程度較高的選項先觀望,試著先排除其他選項


做題時間:90s~120s


難度系數:五星


· 例題:TPO3-2 Depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer


Paragraph 4: Even development in architecture has been the result of major technological changes. Materials and methods of construction are integral parts of the design of architecture structures. In earlier times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that were available, such as wood, stone, brick. Today technology has progressed to the point where it is possible to invent new building materials to suit the type of structure desired. Enormous changes in materials and techniques of construction within the last few generations have made it possible to enclose space with much greater ease and speed and with a minimum of material. Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now and those of comparable size built one hundred years ago.


According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true about materials used in the construction of buildings?


A. Because new building materials are hard to find, construction techniques have changed very little from past generations.


B. The availability of suitable building materials no longer limits the types of structures that may be built.


C. The primary building materials that are available today are wood, stone, and brick.


D. Architects in earlier times did not have enough building materials to enclose large spaces.


· 思路導入:material是關鍵詞,但全篇文章都是探討這個話題,所以題干定位失敗,選擇選項定位,A選項通過construction techniques找到“Enormous changes in materials and techniques of construction”;B選項定位“types of structures”定位到 “Today technology has progressed to the point where it is possible to invent new building materials to suit the type of structure desired”,但是和B選項的意思是否一樣有些不確定,觀望。 C選項定位“wood, stone, and brick”,找到“In earlier times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that were available, such as wood, stone, brick.”,排除。D答案定位到enclose large spaces,“Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now and those of comparable size built one hundred years ago”不確定該選項是否正確的情況下需要再將不確定的B和D及原文進行比對,發現D答案中的not enough是不正確的,B選項正確。


· 例題:TPO33-2 Railroads and Commercial Agriculture in Nineteenth-Century United States


Paragraph 3: The new railroad networks shifted the direction of western trade. In 1840 most northwestern grain was shipped south down the Mississippi River to the bustling port of New Orleans. But low water made steamboat travel hazardous in summer, and ice shut down traffic in winter. Products such as lard, tallow, and cheese quickly spoiled if stored in New Orleans’ hot and humid warehouses. Increasingly, traffic from the Midwest flowed west to east, over the new rail lines. Chicago became the region’s hub, linking the farms of the upper Midwest to New York and other eastern cities by more than 2,000 miles of track in 1855. Thus while the value of goods shipped by river to New Orleans continued to increase, the South’s overall share of western trade dropped dramatically.


According to paragraph 3, in what way did the new rail networks change western trade?


A. Northwestern farmers almost completely stopped shipping goods by steamboat.


B. Many western goods began to be shipped east by way of Chicago rather than south to New Orleans.


C. Chicago largely replaced New York and other eastern cities as the final market for goods for the West.


D. The value of goods shipped west soon became greater than the value of goods shipped east.


· 思路導入:new rail networks是關鍵詞,但全篇文章都是探討這個話題,所以題干定位失敗,選擇選項定位,A選項通過steamboat找到“But low water made steamboat travel hazardous in summer, and ice shut down traffic in winter.”,但沒有提到completely stopped,排除;B選項定位“Chicago”定位到 “Chicago became the region’s hub”但定位“New Orleans”只說到危險,并沒有直接提到rather than的關系,無法確定B答案,觀望。 C依然是Chicago,沒有提到replace New York排除。D答案定位到value of goods,最后一句“Thus while the value of goods shipped by river to New Orleans continued to increase, the South’s overall share of western trade dropped dramatically”不確定該選項是否正確的情況下需要再將不確定的B和D及原文進行比對,發現D答案中的west是不正確的,因為New Orleans是南部城市,確認B選項正確。


· 小結:這類的事實信息題是大家最容易糾結的,干擾項可能只用錯了一個詞,因此不確定的選項千萬不要立刻排除或加入自己的想法強行使它正確,看一下其他的選項,最后再來“找茬”,或許你覺得某個答案還有問題,但是其他選項錯誤更多,時間寶貴,此時便不要再鉆牛角尖,果斷選擇去下一題。


總體來看,其實事實信息題的變化有很多,甚至包括有一些沒有段落定位的情況,但是萬變不離其宗,大家在做題的時候一定要保持頭腦清醒,明確做題思路和步驟。平時練習的時候控制好做題時間,仔細分析自己錯題的原因。考試的時候保持好心態,發揮出平時的水平就好。


英語高能高分·就上新航道   >>點擊在線咨詢<<

400-009-9696




  • 品牌簡介
  • 留學服務
  • 課程中心
  • 精品項目
  • 微課
  • 校區地圖
熱門活動

注冊/登錄

+86
獲取驗證碼

登錄

+86

收不到驗證碼?

知道了

找回密碼

+86
獲取驗證碼
下一步

重新設置密碼

為您的賬號設置一個新密碼

保存新密碼

密碼重置成功

請妥善保存您的密碼
立即登錄

為了確保您的帳號安全

請勿將帳號信息提供給他人/機構

成人黄色网