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閱讀中“迷人”的承上啟下句 - 譚蓉

作者:譚蓉 2019-08-23 17:42 來源:武漢編輯
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在閱讀英文文章時,泛讀幫助我們迅速掌握文章大意,精讀幫助我們讀懂文中特定句子。


在留預課本以及雅思閱讀中有這樣幾類題目很考驗我們的泛讀和精讀句子的能力:heading匹配以及信息匹配題。通常我們會通過題目中的關鍵詞去文中定位,找到相應句子,對比題目和原文再作答,但是有時候我們找到了原詞,題目卻還是做錯了,這是什么在作怪?原來,在我們的原文中,尤其是中心句位置出現了一些承上啟下的句子,然而我們可能并沒有仔細分析導致做錯題,今天老師要給大家分析三種在閱讀中常用來承上啟下的句型。


1. 首句中有轉折詞或首句和第二句之間有表轉折的承接詞


常見的轉折詞:while(雖然,然而),although,even though,whereas(然而), but, yet, however, on the contrary, conversely(相反),quite the opposite, despite, in spite of, unlike, compared with, rather than, instead of等。


例子:文章話題The superconsumer generation中第四段開頭如下:While consumers of the generation Y era can choose from a huge range of products at giant shopping malls, they have even more choice online.


根據上下文此處的while表雖然,粗略分析,while從句呈上,主句啟下,當然為了確認,我們還需往后稍微讀一下,通過接下來的句子Gen Y-ers, as they are known, have grown up with the Internet...In just over a decade, internet shopping has seen an explosion in growth.中不斷出現的Internet我們可以確認,they even have more choice online是本段的主旨。而通過第三段的首句While their parents’ generation may well have known many store owners personally, members of Generation Y are more likely to buy from huge multinational companies like Walmart.中的multinational companies以及Walmart可以確認第四段第一句話中的while從句是承接上一段的。(例子來源于留預讀寫三級 P39)


正確理解這種承上啟下的句子在閱讀中有著重大意義,如留預三級讀寫的unit 4 reading 2有一個段落信息匹配題,其中有兩個選項如下:1.Why are tall buildings built?2.An example of a controversial tall building.以下為第四段第一句話:Tall buildings are seen as a symbol of success and status by many, but they are not always popular with local residents, particularly in some historic cities.


一部分同學看到Tall buildings are seen as a symbol of success and status by many就將第四段匹配了第一個題目,完美跳入出題者的陷阱,我們再仔細看這個句子會發現but引出了一個轉折句,因此but前面的句子為呈上即第三段的主旨,but引出的句子才是第四段的主旨,通過這個句子的句意,我們可以預判,第三段匹配第一個選項,第四段匹配第二個選項。接下來讀第四段后半部分以及三段確認。四段后半部分:London is very old and is spread over a vast area, so there are not many tall buildings in the center of the city. As a result, the construction of the Shard, the tallest building in London and in the entire European Union, has been highly controversial.controversial原詞出現。以下為第三段開頭:Countries and cities have been competing with each other for centuries to hold records for the tallest structures.To many people tall buildings are a sign of modernity, wealth, power and success.也跟第三段but前面的句子一致,這樣我們就能確認預判的答案是正確的了。(例子來源于留預讀寫三級P41)


2. of course+句子放段尾


例子:留預三級讀寫unit 7 reading 1 paragraph 2尾句話:Of course, not all fears are innate.這個文章的閱讀題為主旨段落匹配,其中兩個選項如下:1.There are many fears that have developed from our natural responses to dangerous situations.2. However, many of our fears are not innate; they are learned from our experiences.


這兩個選項一個寫fear是天生的,另一個側重表達fear是后天習得的,學生在讀題的過程中關鍵詞也能畫的很好,即選項1中的natural responses to dangerous situations,選項2中的not innate, learned from experiences.泛讀課文的過程中很多同學看到第二段結尾的not innate就將這個段落和選項2匹配上了,殊不知又進了坑。仔細分析一下Of course, not all fears are innate.漢語意思:當然,并不是所有恐懼都是天生的。根據這個漢語意思我們大膽推測,第二段應該是講天生,第三段講后天。接下來就是往段落中間看去確認。第三段開頭如下:if you see someone almost drown, you may react by developing a fear of water.通過這個句子可以看出,這是經驗習得的,說明第三段匹配第二個選項是正確的;第二段開頭如下:If you think about the time when we did not live in houses, but alongside nature, we faced many more dangers from animals.通過nature等詞可以看出這個段落解釋的是天生的恐懼,匹配第一個選項。(例子來源于留預三級讀寫P69)


3. 段落開頭為not only ,but also


例子:留預讀寫三級unit 7 reading 2paragraph 3首句:Our response not only becomes faster when we are faced with danger, but we also benefit from fear by becoming stronger in dangerous situations.閱讀題為段落信息匹配題,其中有一個選項如下:why do we react quickly to danger?


我們仔細分析一下第三段的首句會發現,not only是承接上一段的,即2段主旨為:Our response becomes faster when we are faced with danger,這與我們上面的選項react quickly一致,于是可以預判第二段匹配上面的選項,這時我們可以再去第二段確認,第二段第一句:In the past, humans faced danger on a daily basis so they learned to respond to it instantly in order to stay alive.與not only引出的句子表達一致。


以上就是閱讀中常見的承上啟下的主旨句,無論題目怎么變化,只要我們認真分析題目和句子,提高我們精讀句子的能力,遇到各種閱讀題就都不會害怕了。


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